utility function：效用函数——a function relating specific goods and services in an economy to individual preferences
effect：something that is produced by a cause or agent; result
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)： is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis, which assigns a monetary value to the measure of effect.
Cost-utility analysis is similar to cost-effectiveness analysis.
If you describe an aspect of a situation as a contradiction, you mean that it is completely different from other aspects, and so makes the situation confused or difficult to understand.
e.g., ...the contradictions between her private life and the public persona.
contradiction in terms: If you say that something is a contradiction in terms, you mean that it is described as having a quality that it cannot have.
The limitation of something is the act or process of controlling or reducing it.
A limitation on something is a rule or decision which prevents that thing from growing or extending beyond certain limits....a limitation on the tax deductions for people who make more than $100,000 a year. [+ on]
There is to be no limitation on the number of opposition parties. [+ on]
You use modest to describe something such as an amount, rate, or improvement which is fairly small.
Transition（状态转变） is the process in which something changes from one state to another.
If someone transitions from one state or activity to another, they move gradually from one to the other.
Conversion（单位的转换.(比如长度,速度,重量.)） is the act or process of changing something into a different state or form.
If someone changes their religion or beliefs, you can refer to their conversion to their new religion or beliefs.
transformation（物体/状态之间的转换） is a change in position or direction of the reference axes in a coordinate system without an alteration in their relative angle in math.
An agent is a person who looks after someone else's business affairs or does business on their behalf.
If you refer to someone or something as the agent of a particular effect, you mean that they cause this effect.
a person or thing that performs an action or brings about a certain result, or that is able to do so.