【学术】英文写作中值得参考的语法、句式(二)

作者:李忆非
链接:https://www.zhihu.com/question/23684933/answer/125467391
来源:知乎
著作权归作者所有。商业转载请联系作者获得授权,非商业转载请注明出处。

表示获得关注(常用于Abstract, Introduction等需要开篇的地方)

In the past 10 years, considerable attention has been paid to perovskite materials falling
within the classification La1−xSrxMO3(where M is a transition metal) as catalysts for oxygen reduction.

Among them, Mn-based oxides have attracted extensive interest because of low cost, high
abundance, environmental friendliness and considerable activity.

Rechargeable magnesium batteries have lately received great attention for large-scale energy storage systems due to their high volumetric capacities, low materials cost, and safe characteristic.


表示本领域目前出现的困境 (常用于Abstract, Introduction等处,尤其是在自己的新idea出现之前的地方) 所谓革命尚未成功,同志们仍需努力

However, rechargeable Mg–air batteries with reversible oxygen reduction and evolution
reactions are facing challenges and it is worthwhile devoting much effort to this.

As can be seen, the development of cathode materials convenient for rechargeable Mg
batteries remains an ongoing challenge due to strict requirements for the intercalation compound that ensures fast Mg 2+ ion transport in combination with a high operating voltage.

Theoretical and experimental investigations on new cathode materials such as V2O5, MoS2, Li4Ti5O12, and MnO2 have demonstrated promising results, but it is generally agreed that a high-voltage high-capacity cathode with fast Mg2+ intercalation kinetics has yet to be identified.

Although some encouraging progress have been made, developing appropriate electrode materials with high capacity and good reversibility is less successful and still require further research.


引进一个新事物,新材料,新方法 (常用于Introduction强调自己研究的重要性)

Among the various NASICON compounds, NVP has emerged as an interesting candidate because of its impressive energy density.

NaFePO4, unlike its celebrated lithium analogue olivine type LiFePO4, crystallized in the more thermodynamically stable maricite structure, ...

Hence, it is no surprise that similar NaMO2 compounds have been targeted as Na intercalation electrodes.


表示探索,挖掘

explore, probe, investigate, illustrate

Therefore, it is desirable to exploit efficient ORR electrocatalysts.


表示提出

propose, point out, claim, state


表示做了。。。实验

perform, carry out, conduct, undertake, adopt


表示阐释

illustrate, elucidate

In an effort to uncover the electrochemical kinetics derived from different LiCl concentrations, …


表示证明

certify, verify, justify, substantiate

To further substantiate our claim that…

Use clear reasoning to justify each criticism and highlight good points and weaker
points.


表示认定

identify, specify


形容“好的”,“显著的” (最常见于Results and Discussion吹自己的结果有多好,也通用于Abstract,Conclusion等处)

remarkable, outstanding, considerable(也可以用于表示大的,多的)

fantastic, impressive

表示一般好的,可用acceptable

The only exception was perhaps Chevrel phases (Mo6X8 , X = S, Se), which show acceptable intercalation kinetics and cycling stability for practical applications.

A surprisingly high-rate capability (170 mAh g-1 at 20 Ag-1) and unprecedented long-term cyclability (~90% capacity retention for 20 000 cycles) has been obtained.

XXX, with the reduced consumption of Pt while still maintaining satisfactory catalytic activity and stability.

This is a noteworthy finding because mullite-based oxides are significantly less expensive and more abundant than platinum group metals and offer a promising alternative route for tackling the oxygen activation problems.


形容多的,巨大的

extensive, intensitve, considerable, tremendous

In the past 10 years, considerable attention has been paid to perovskite materials falling within the classification La1−xSrxMO3(where M is a transition metal) as catalysts for oxygen reduction.

Among them, Mn-based oxides have attracted extensive interest because of low cost, high
abundance, environmental friendliness and considerable activity.

In recent years, theoretical and experimental investigations of novel cathode materials for MIBs have increased tremendously.

2d-trees have numerous applications, ranging from classifying astronomical objects to computer animation to speeding up neural networks to mining data to image retrieval.

表达可数的许多,numerous最合适了


非常XX的,起强调和夸大的作用

exceptionally/strikingly/surprisingly/considerably
+ other adj.

Interestingly, the electrochemical response measured for the MgCl2 containing solutions is strikingly different than that for the MgTFSI2/DME solution.

The capacity drastically decayed upon further cycling.


形容 重要的,决定性的

crucial, critical, essential, key,

play an important role in …, central to

A critical element in the pursuit of this quest is the discovery of efficient and cost-effective catalysts for use in electrochemical energy conversion processes1,2 such as the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), both of which are central to the efficiencies of direct-solar and electrolytic water-splitting4,5 devices, fuel cells6 and metal–air batteries.


表示展示性能 (这个通用于Abstract, Introduction, Conclusion 主要用于Results and Discussion部分)

present, demonstrate, reveal, show, exhibit, feature, posses, have, display, depict, deliver

The as-prepared hydrogenated Pt/CaMnO3 hybrid exhibits a 5-fold higher ORR mass activity and an 11-fold higher specific activity than that of the benchmark Pt/C catalyst.

SEM results display average particle sizes of ~50 nm, which is consistent with the XRD line-broadening results.

(这些动词很多可以互换,但还是有些小区别的,比如这里如果是展示形貌和图画的话,用display这个词更舒服)

Galvanostatic studies show that expanded graphite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 284mAhg-1 at a current density of 20mAg-1.

Highly symmetric peak profiles are observed which signify good reversibility of both anodic and cathodic reactions.

The feasibility of graphite in a Na full cell is also confirmed in conjunction with the Na 1.5VPO4.8F0.7 cathode, delivering an energy of ~120 Wh kg-1 while maintaining ~70% of the initial capacity after 250 cycles.


对。。。有好处,促进

be beneficial for.../ be favorable to...

boost/ promote

Advances in perovskite-type materials have shown that they possess mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, which is beneficial for catalytic activity.


对。。。不好

The peroxide formed in the two-electron mechanism is severely detrimental to the range of compounds examined here, as most manganese compounds with a high oxidation state are
susceptible to reduction (to form soluble Mn2+) by the peroxide.

However, magnesium batteries containing an aqueous electrolyte media risks decomposition of the Mg metal anode surface.


表示吹牛 (常用于Abstract, Conclusions和其它需要总结强调自己的工作多牛逼的地方)

开启本领域的天窗,解决了瓶颈,颠覆了传统理念。吹,接着吹

The electrolyte with high ionic conductivity, excellent Mg deposition reversibility as well as the highest anodic potential to date (3.5 V vs. Mg RE) opens the door to research on high energy rechargeable Mg batteries.12,13

In this Article, we report a volcano relationship between a material property that serves as the activity descriptor and the intrinsic ORR activity of perovskite-based oxides. Such information has predictive power and provides insights into the design of new catalysts with enhanced ORR activity similar to those reported for platinum-based metals10,11,13.

The viewpoint from the electronic structure proposed in this study might pave a new way to design electrode materials for multivalent-ion batteries.

The utilization of such a highly electrochemical stable GF unlocks the critical bottleneck of incompatibility among all battery parts, especially parasitic corrosive reactions between electrolyte and currently available current collector, which takes a big step forward towards Mg-based batteries' practical applications.


表示使。。。

enable,
endow, allow,
afford, render,
cause XX to …

Therefore, an ether-based (DEGDME) electrolyte is believed to endow CoS@rGO electrode with remarkable electrochemical properties in the present studies.

Thus, after their formation, polysulfides may diffuse out of the cathode and into the electrolyte separator, causing capacity to fade and leading to degradation reactions at the lithium anode.


表示由于

due to,
owe to, thanks to, caused by, arise from, stem from, derive from


表示B被A难住,阻止

inhibit, impede, preclude, plagued

陷入困境 B get stuck with A

However, some precipitation of insoluble surface species obviously occurs in pristine solutions, which impedes Mg deposition but does not fully avoid it.

Catalysts located on the left side of the volcano in Figure 1 bind oxygen too strongly, and thus the reaction is retarded by desorption of the OHads.

These studies have shown that the discovery of cathode materials is mainly inhibited by the nature of Mg2+ ions:

However, despite these advantages, the development of rechargeable MIBs remains hindered by a lack of suitable cathode materials and electrolytes and overall anode-electrolyte-cathode incompatibilities.


表示导致,A对B产生了不好的影响

raise concerns of its application in...

pose an important challenge to...

precludes their potential application in...

The bivalency of Mg2+ ions has made it challenging to find cathode materials operating at high voltages with decent (de)intercalation kinetics.

Despite great interest in a Li–S battery, soluble polysulfides as charge/discharge intermediates pose an important challenge to realize commercial Li–S batteries.

However, the lack of suitable cathode materials allowing reversible intercalation of Zn2+ hinders the development of zinc-ion batteries.

However, a lack of fundamental understanding of the ORR mechanism and the material properties that govern catalytic activity hampers the development of highly active oxide catalysts.

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal–air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies.


起承转合

Pyrite FeS2, as an easily obtained natural mineral, has been already commercialized
in primary lithium batteries.

In recent years, theoretical and experimental investigations of novel cathode materials
for MIBs have increased tremendously.25−34 (前文说最近有很多研究,紧接着就说这些研究说明了什么) These studies have shown that the discovery of cathode materials is mainly inhibited by the nature of Mg2+ ions: XXX

这是很好的衔接。

It is interesting to note that oxides such as LaMnO3þd and LaNiO3 have intrinsic ORR activity comparable to state-of-the-art Pt/C (Supplementary Fig. S2).

相当于further more


副词或者介词短语可以直接起到起承转合的作用

Impressively, the CoS@rGO nanostructure exhibits much better capacity retention with a
ultrahigh discharge capacity of around 425 mAh g-1 even after 1000 cycles.

More importantly, it should be noted that the plate-on-sheet structure of CoS@rGO promote the integrity of the electrode.

More recently, FeS2 and FeSe2 have also been synthesized and demonstrated superior
electrochemical performance in SIBs. However, as the same first-row transition metal dichalcogenides, cobalt sulfides have been rarely investigated in SIBs, …

Hence, it is anticipated that highly reversible electrochemical reaction could be realized by simply restricting the potential window to 0.6 V

In fact, …也是很好的一个起承转合词组

In the search for electrode materials with stabilities acceptable for practical Na ion batteries, Meng and co-workers conducted XXX


转折

However,...

Despite these considerable advantages, the commercial application of Li-S batteries is still far due to the low sulfur utilization and poor cycle stability.

当你熟悉了以上这些常用的动词,形容词,词组短句,长句和学术术语以后,写出像样测学术论文就减轻了很多障碍。之后就是把它们应用到文章的各个部分就好了。

然后要注意几个部分的写作规则。比如Abstract,通常十几句话,短小精炼,把idea,原创性,实验结果和意义说清楚就好了,不要累赘。Conclusion也是一样,但是侧重于总结,也可以提实验结果,强调意义,并可以加上对今后工作的展望。

Introduction是最重要的,需要把你所做工作的领域向大家介绍一下,然后目前发展瓶颈说清楚,再之后提出自己的idea, 概念,方法或者新事物。大部分对前人工作的总结和批判是在这个部分完成的,参考文献也大部分发生在这部分,所以耗费时间最长,最考察作者的科研深度和对文献的熟悉度,如果有很多重要工作漏掉了没有引用,在审稿的时候就会被编辑大加批判的。

Results & Discussion这部分当然就是介绍自己每一个所做实验的结果。数据分析和结果讨论和Introduction同等重要,考察的是作者的学术功底,能否在已有数据上分析出科学合理的结果,并作证自己的结论。

下面是一些具体栗子


Abstract

The High Performance of Crystal Water Containing Manganese Birnessite Cathodes for Magnesium Batteries

Nano Lett., 2015, 15 (6), pp 4071–4079

Rechargeable magnesium batteries have lately received great attention (获得关注,引入新概念) for large-scale energy storage systems due to (B受制于A,由于) their high volumetric capacities, low materials cost, and safe characteristic. However, the bivalency of Mg2+ ions has made it challenging to (本领域目前出现的困境) find cathode materials operating at high voltages with decent (de)intercalation kinetics. In an effort to overcome (起承转合) this challenge, we adopt (具体做了什么) an unconventional approach of engaging crystal water in the layered structure of Birnessite MnO2 because the crystal water can effectively screen electrostatic interactions between Mg2+ ions and the host anions. The crucial (好重要哦) role of the crystal water was revealed by directly visualizing its presence and dynamic rearrangement using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Moreover, the importance of lowering desolvation energy penalty at the cathode–electrolyte interface was elucidated by working with water containing nonaqueous electrolytes. In aqueous electrolytes, the decreased interfacial energy penalty by hydration of Mg2+ allowsBirnessite MnO2 to achieve (展示性能) a large reversible capacity (231.1 mAh g–1) at high operating voltage (2.8 V vs Mg/Mg2+) with excellent (形容“好的”,“显著的”,吹牛部分 ) cycle life (62.5% retention after 10000 cycles), unveiling the importance (意义重大,颠覆三观) of effective charge shielding in the host and facile Mg2+ ions transfer through the cathode’s interface.


Introduction

Stabilization of Insoluble Discharge Products by Facile Aniline Modification for High
Performance Li-S Batteries

Jae Ho Kim , Taehoon Kim , Yo Chan Jeong , Kunsil Lee , Kyung Tae Park , Seung Jae Yang , * and Chong Rae Park

Adv. Energy Mater. 2015, 5, 1500268

DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500268

Energy storage systems with high energy density are required to fulfill the needs for grid energy storage and electric vehicles. [1–3] Sulfur has been spotlighted (获得关注) as a cathode material due to its theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g−1 , [4,5] which is around 5 times higher than that of metal oxide based on an intercalation reaction. [6] Lithium sulfur batteries operate on a redox reaction described as S8 + 16 Li ↔ 8 Li2S near 2.2 V (vs Li/Li+), which provides (展示性能) a high specific energy of 2600 Wh kg−1. [4,5] Furthermore, sulfur is inexpensive, environmwentally benign, and naturally abundant. [7] Despite these considerable advantages, (革命尚未成功,还需努力) the commercial application of Li-S batteries is still far due to (B受制于A,由于) the low sulfur utilization and poor cycle stability. [8] Low sulfur utilization is from the insulating nature of the sulfur and intermediates. This issue has been handled by employing carbon materials and conducting polymers. [9,10] Poor cycle stability is a more intricate issue, since the intermediate soluble polysulfides diffuse into the electrolyte [11,12] and insoluble discharge products (Li2S2 and Li2S) aggregate at the end of discharge. [13] To date, (起承转合) considerable researches have been conducted (前人工作,获得关注) to prevent loss of soluble polysulfides by encapsulating sulfur in various nanostructured carbon matrices, [14–19] wrapping the composites with polymers, [20–22] graphene [23] and metal oxide, [24] and adding the interlayer between the cathode and separator. [25–27] To alleviate the shuttle reaction, (起承转合) additives were introduced to the electrolyte by Solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation on the Li negative electrode. [28,29] However, issues from insoluble discharge products have not been addressed (本领域目前出现的困境) with as much fervor.
Cui and co-workers recently exploited bulky amphiphilic polymers to enhance the binding energy between the carbon matrix and insoluble discharge products, which resulted in sequestering aggregation of insoluble discharge products.(本领域目前出现的困境) [30] This approach exhibited a high specific capacity and improved cycle life.
However, the bulky property of used amphiphilic polymer can cause (导致) nonuniform
functionalization and ineffective sulfur infiltration by pore blockage.(本领域目前出现的困境) Therefore, there are some challenges in managing the insoluble discharge products for high performance Li-S batteries: (i) a smaller chemical group is more suitable for functionalization, which can lead to the homogeneous functionalization of pore wall and efficient sulfur infiltration, (ii) a more effective functional group can manage the insoluble discharge products, and (iii) a cheaper and milder fabrication method is needed for commercialization.

In this work, (起承转合,具体说自己的新方法,新概念) we introduced aniline into the pore wall of ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) for the first time by a simple diazotization method. In general,(起承转合) the amine-type functional groups have been widely used to
remove H2S in the natural gas sweetening process [31,32] through a strong Lewis acid-base interaction.[33] The aniline functional group is presumed to strongly interact with insoluble discharge products in a similar manner. CMK-3 with the confinement effect was used as a carbon framework, [14] which led to (导致) a synergistic effect on the performance. The proposed diazotization method was conducted in a simple procedure under mild conditions and preserves the original structure of carbon matrix. [34–36] The resulting materials provided (展示性能) effective interaction sites for a homogeneous distribution of the insoluble discharge products during cycling, as schematically described in Figure 1 , and it conclusively exhibited (展示性能) highly stable cycling performance and good rate capability when evaluated as a cathode material for Li-S batteries.

Introduction部分主要用来介绍前人的工作,并提出自己的工作。所以这里作者引用了33篇文献,提出了Li-S电池的意义和目前的主要问题(主要是三个问题)。然后提出自己的方案,用CMK-3作为模板并与S分子作用以提高导电性,抑制S的溶解。然后后面简单说了下性能也就是实验结果,但是不太需要像Abstract里那样要强调这个结果有多牛。

除了以上我自己个人总结的这些,也非常推荐周耀旗老师的那篇经典博客“科学网—怎样掌握写好英语科技论文的诀窍”。我自己之前也是读了他这篇文章很多遍。周老师提供的是科学方法论,我提供的是干货,hoho

最后自己的论文一定要改上好多遍,找同事,找导师,找外国人,不知不觉就改了个十遍二十遍,终于可以看了。自以为写的很好的部分在别人眼里看来很可能是累赘,前后矛盾的地方旁人读起来也比自己更容易发现。比如下面是我的某个文章manuscirpt,找过很多高人修正后已经面目全非了,但却是必须经历的过程。这篇文章后来在去年发表出去了。

链接在这里:

Enhancing sodium-ion battery performance with interlayer-expanded MoS2

<img src="https://pic3.zhimg.com/50/c9ab40d9834915e8fad83866faeeac09_hd.jpg" data-rawwidth="1395" data-rawheight="1299" class="origin_image zh-lightbox-thumb" width="1395" data-original="https://pic3.zhimg.com/c9ab40d9834915e8fad83866faeeac09_r.jpg">
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